particular help were reports generated by the CCPC, CCRB, the federal monitor, and the Legal Aid Society. The Panel also reviewed relevant materials from other jurisdictions, including penalty matrices and disciplinary procedures used by other big-city police departments, and interviewed individuals with direct knowledge of other police departments.

4.              Limitations on the Panel’s Review

The duration of the Panel’s work was seven months, which necessarily limited what could be accomplished, and the Report notes several areas that deserve more scrutiny. Because of time constraints, the Panel selected a number of specific areas to focus on in its review.

The Panel members are attorneys and former law enforcement officers; they are not accountants, statistical analysts, or management consultants. The Panel structured its review, therefore, primarily around legal issues and public safety goals. Although the Report discusses issues such as technology and executive structure, the Panel is cognizant of its limitations in such areas. The Panel chose not to retain outside experts to assist its work, but recommends that the Commissioner enlist outside experts in certain areas as the NYPD continues its own efforts to improve the Department’s disciplinary system.

II.             THE NEW YORK CITY POLICE DEPARTMENT: ITS MEMBERS, LEADERS, AND REPRESENTATIVES

The New York City Police Department is the largest city police department in the country. The Department employs some 36,000 uniformed officers and 19,000 civilians and is responsible for policing the approximately 8.5 million residents of the five boroughs.[4]

The NYPD is divided into bureaus, each of which serves a separate function. The largest bureau is the Patrol Services Bureau, which oversees the majority of the Department’s uniformed officers and is headed by the Chief of Patrol. It is divided into eight borough commands and further divided into 77 police precincts.

The NYPD’s four investigative bureaus—the Detective Bureau, the Intelligence Bureau, the Counterterrorism Bureau, and the Internal Affairs Bureau—are charged with investigating crimes and terrorist activity, as well as monitoring and investigating police corruption and misconduct. The Department’s administrative section consists of several different bureaus that provide support to NYPD officers. The Transit, Housing, and Transportation Bureaus police the City’s subway system, public housing developments, and roadways, respectively.

Appointed by the Mayor, the Police Commissioner serves as the head of the NYPD. By law, the Commissioner must be a civilian.[5] Most commissioners have served in the Department prior to assuming their leadership role.

Other key leadership positions are the First Deputy Commissioner (now Benjamin B. Tucker), the Chief of Department (now Terence Monahan), and the Bureau Chiefs. Each of

[4] NYPD, About NYPD, https://www1.nyc.gov/site/nypd/about/about-nypd/about-nypd-landing.page.

[5] See New York City Administrative Code § 14-102.